Newborns often face minor medical procedures that can cause them discomfort and pain. In an effort to mitigate these symptoms, researchers from Thomas Jefferson University conducted a groundbreaking randomized trial. The study aimed to explore the potential benefits of playing calming background music, specifically the lullabies of Mozart, during minor medical procedures for infants. The trial, conducted in a community hospital in the Bronx, New York, involved 100 full-term newborns. This article analyzes the study’s findings and discusses the implications for pain management in newborns.
The infants participating in the trial were divided into two groups: one exposed to soothing instrumental lullabies by Mozart for twenty minutes and the other group experiencing silence before a standard heel prick procedure. Both groups were given a small dose of sucrose, a common practice to alleviate pain in newborns, two minutes before the procedure. An investigator assessed the infants’ pain levels based on various indicators such as facial expressions, crying, breathing patterns, limb movements, and alertness. The study revealed that newborns exposed to Mozart demonstrated a significant reduction in pain scores on the Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS) before, during, and after the heel prick.
The use of music as a therapeutic intervention to alleviate pain is well-documented among adults. However, the mechanism through which music achieves this effect and whether this response is innate or learned remains unclear. Newborns present an excellent opportunity to explore this further since traditional pain medication is often not suitable for this population. Previous studies have shown promising results in combining oral sucrose with music therapy for premature newborns during the heel prick test in intensive care units. However, the recent trial conducted in the Bronx focused on infants born at full term, shedding light on the potential benefits for a broader population.
The Influence of Music
While distraction may explain the soothing effect of music, it cannot fully account for the pain relief observed. Previous research indicates that lively and enjoyable music is more effective in alleviating pain compared to somber and sad music. This suggests that factors such as tempo, harmony, or melody may play a significant role in pain relief. The study did not investigate the specific qualities of different types of music and their pain-relieving effects, leaving room for future research in this area.
The findings of this trial suggest that music, particularly the lullabies of Mozart, can have a powerful soothing effect on newborns undergoing minor medical procedures. The ease, reproducibility, and low cost of music intervention make it an attractive option for pain relief. However, further studies are needed to explore other potential interventions, including parental voices, and to identify the specific characteristics of music that contribute to pain reduction. Understanding the underlying mechanisms will enable healthcare professionals to tailor music interventions to maximize their effectiveness in alleviating pain in newborns.
The study conducted by researchers from Thomas Jefferson University demonstrates the potential of music, specifically the lullabies of Mozart, in alleviating pain in newborns. The trial provides valuable insights into the use of music as a non-pharmaceutical intervention for pain management in infants. The soothing effect observed may not be solely attributed to distraction but rather to the specific qualities of the music. This study opens the door for future exploration into the therapeutic potential of music and expands our understanding of pain management in the youngest members of society.